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Chebychev–Grübler–Kutzbach criterion (simple closed chain)

The Chebychev–Grübler–Kutzbach criterion determines the degree of freedom of a kinematic chain, that is, a coupling of rigid bodies by means of mechanical ... more

Chebychev–Grübler–Kutzbach criterion (single open chain)

The Chebychev–Grübler–Kutzbach criterion determines the degree of freedom of a kinematic chain, that is, a coupling of rigid bodies by means of mechanical ... more

Stiffness of an elastic body with a single degree of freedom

The stiffness of a body is a measure of the resistance offered by an elastic body to deformation. For an elastic body with a single degree of freedom (for ... more

Tensile Stress Area

Bolted joints are one of the most common elements in construction and machine design. They consist of fasteners that capture and join other parts, and are ... more

Rotational stiffness

The stiffness of a body is a measure of the resistance offered by an elastic body to deformation. A body have a rotational stiffness when it is in a ... more

maximum axial tension - clamp band

In the aerospace industry, the empirical methodology for evaluating the axial load capability of the clamp band joint assumes the joint components to be ... more

Screw Thread Engagement

Bolted joints are one of the most common elements in construction and machine design. They consist of fasteners that capture and join other parts, and are ... more

Diatomic ideal gas heat capacity at constant volume

Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat that is added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting ... more

Spherical shells: ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27)

The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (... more

Cylindrical shells:ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27)

he ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (... more

Miles Equation

In 1954, Miles developed his version of this equation for GRMS as he was researching fatigue failure of aircraft structural ... more

Worksheet 324

The main span of San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge is 1275 m long at its coldest. The bridge is exposed to temperatures ranging from –15ºC to 40ºC . (a) What is its change in length between these temperatures? Assume that the bridge is made entirely of steel.

Strategy

Use the equation for linear thermal expansion to calculate the change in length , ΔL . Use the coefficient of linear expansion, α ,for steel from Table 13.2, and note that the change in temperature, ΔT , is 55ºC

Thermal Expansion - Linear

(b) convert the change in temperature if Kelvin and Fahrenheit degrees. **
**this section is not included in the Reference material

Celsius <-> Kelvin
Celsius <-> Fahrenheit

Discussion

Although not large compared with the length of the bridge, this change in length is observable. It is generally spread over many expansion joints so that the expansion at each joint is small.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Turnbuckle (The direct shear stress induced in screw thread)

A mechanical joint is a part of a machine which is used to connect another mechanical part or mechanism. Mechanical joints may be temporary or permanent. ... more

Thermal de Broglie wavelength (Massive Particles)

The thermal de Broglie wavelength is the average de Broglie wavelength of the gas particles in an ideal gas at the specified temperature. We can take the ... more

Knuckle joint (Moment about axis XX)

A knuckle joint is a mechanical joint used to connect two rods which are under a tensile load, when there is a requirement of small amount of flexibility, ... more

Worksheet 306

Calculate the force the biceps muscle must exert to hold the forearm and its load as shown in the figure below, and compare this force with the weight of the forearm plus its load. You may take the data in the figure to be accurate to three significant figures.


(a) The figure shows the forearm of a person holding a book. The biceps exert a force FB to support the weight of the forearm and the book. The triceps are assumed to be relaxed. (b) Here, you can view an approximately equivalent mechanical system with the pivot at the elbow joint

Strategy

There are four forces acting on the forearm and its load (the system of interest). The magnitude of the force of the biceps is FB, that of the elbow joint is FE, that of the weights of the forearm is wa , and its load is wb. Two of these are unknown FB, so that the first condition for equilibrium cannot by itself yield FB . But if we use the second condition and choose the pivot to be at the elbow, then the torque due to FE is zero, and the only unknown becomes FB .

Solution

The torques created by the weights are clockwise relative to the pivot, while the torque created by the biceps is counterclockwise; thus, the second condition for equilibrium (net τ = 0) becomes

Force (Newton's second law)
Torque
Force (Newton's second law)
Torque

Note that sin θ = 1 for all forces, since θ = 90º for all forces. This equation can easily be solved for FB in terms of known quantities,yielding. Entering the known values gives

Mechanical equilibrium - 3=3 Torque example

which yields

Torque
Addition

Now, the combined weight of the arm and its load is known, so that the ratio of the force exerted by the biceps to the total weight is

Division

Discussion

This means that the biceps muscle is exerting a force 7.38 times the weight supported.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Landauer's Principle

Landauer’s principle is a physical principle pertaining to the lower theoretical limit of energy consumption of computation. It holds that “any ... more

Wind Chill - North American and UK - Fahrenheit scale

Wind-chill or windchill, (popularly wind chill factor) is the perceived decrease in air temperature felt by the body on exposed skin due to the flow of ... more

Wind Chill - North American and UK - Celsius scale

Wind-chill or windchill, (popularly wind chill factor) is the perceived decrease in air temperature felt by the body on exposed skin due to the flow of ... more

Knuckle joint (Maximum bending stress)

A knuckle joint is a mechanical joint used to connect two rods which are under a tensile load, when there is a requirement of small amount of flexibility, ... more

Amdahl's Law

In computer architecture, Amdahl’s law (or Amdahl’s argument) is a formula which gives the theoretical speedup in latency of the execution of a ... more

Shear resistance of a pin

This formula calculates the shear resistance of a pin in a pin and plate connection.
From EN 1993-1-8 (2005) (English): Eurocode 3: Design of steel ... more

Hall coefficient in semiconductors (for moderate magnetic fields)

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the ... more

Einstein relation (Electrical mobility equation)

Electrical mobility is the ability of charged particles (such as electrons or protons) to move through a medium in response to an electric field that is ... more

Critical Buckling Compressive Loading of a Plate

In science, buckling is a mathematical instability that leads to a failure mode.

When a structure is subjected to compressive stress, buckling may ... more

Permutation ( k-permutations of n)

Informally, a permutation of a set of objects is an arrangement of those objects into a particular order. The notion of permutation relates to the act of ... more

Torque for a desired preload ( fasteners )

Bolted joints are one of the most common elements in construction and machine design. They consist of fasteners that capture and join other parts, and are ... more

Hawking Radiation - Temperature of a black body (or a black hole)

A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence. A black hole ... more

Electrical Mobility in gas phase

Electrical mobility is the ability of charged particles (such as electrons or protons) to move through a medium in response to an electric field that is ... more

Electrokinesis

Electrohydrodynamics (EHD), also known as electro-fluid-dynamics (EFD) or electrokinetics, is the study ... more

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