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The Helmholtz free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “useful” work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant ... more

Tier 1 capital is the core measure of a bank’s financial strength from a regulator’s point of view. It is composed of core capital, which ... more

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how ... more

Electrons in atoms orbit the nucleus. The electrons can only orbit stably, without radiating, in certain orbits (called by Bohr the “stationary ... more

The equation yields the surface averaged Nusselt number, which is used to determine the average convective heat transfer coefficient. Newton’s law of ... more

According to Stokes’ law, a perfect sphere traveling through a viscous liquid feels a drag force proportional to the frictional coefficient. The diffusion ... more

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how ... more

Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “usefulness” or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic system ... more

Heat capacity, or thermal capacity, is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or subtracted from) an object to the ... more

In finance, the beta (β) of an investment is a measure of the risk arising from exposure to general market movements as opposed to idiosyncratic factors. ... more

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