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Critical Hall parameter (weakly ionized gas)

The electrothermal instability (also known as the ionization instability) is a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability appearing in ... more

Critical Hall parameter (fully ionized gas)

The electrothermal instability (also known as the ionization instability) is a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability appearing in ... more

Plasma conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how ... more

Hall parameter (due to Hall effect in ionized gases)

The Hall parameter, β, in a plasma is the ratio between the electron gyro-frequency, and the electron-heavy particle collision frequency. In a plasma, the ... more

Tunnel Ionization - DC

Tunnel ionization is a process in which electrons in an atom (or a molecule) pass through the potential barrier and escape from the atom (or molecule). In ... more

Collision between electron and ion (The mean free path)

Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions. Ionization can ... more

Speed of Sound in Plasma

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit of time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium.
The speed of sound in a plasma ... more

Hall coefficient in semiconductors (for moderate magnetic fields)

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the ... more

Hall coefficient

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the ... more

Hall voltage (Hall effect)

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the ... more

Peng–Robinson equation of state

The Peng–Robinson equation of state (PR EOS) was developed in 1976 at The University of Alberta by Ding-Yu Peng and Donald ... more

Probability that an electron hits an ion at ionization process

Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions. If an electron ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - Electron impact cross-section (account for matrix effects)

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - electron impact cross-section

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Peng–Robinson equation of state (a component)

refer to Peng–Robinson equation of state.

... more

Peng–Robinson equation of state (b component)

refer to Peng–Robinson equation of state.

... more

Van der Waals equation of state

The van der Waals equation may be considered as the ideal gas law, “improved” due to two independent reasons: Molecules are thought as ... more

Reduced specific volume

In thermodynamicsIn thermodynamics, the reduced properties of a fluid are a set of state variables normalized by the fluid’s state properties at its ... more

Thermal de Broglie wavelength (Massless particles)

The thermal de Broglie wavelength is the average de Broglie wavelength of the gas particles in an ideal gas at the specified temperature. We can take the ... more

First Townsend ionization coefficient

The Townsend discharge is a gas ionization process where free electrons, accelerated by a sufficiently strong electric field, give rise to electrical ... more

Redlich-Kwong (b - constant)

Introduced in 1949, the Redlich-Kwong equation of state was a considerable improvement over other equations of the time. It is still of interest primarily ... more

Redlich-Kwong (a - constant)

Introduced in 1949, the Redlich-Kwong equation of state was a considerable improvement over other equations of the time. It is still of interest primarily ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - Total yield

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Reduced temperature

In thermodynamics, the reduced properties of a fluid are a set of state variables normalized by the fluid’s state properties at its critical point. ... more

Fermi–Dirac distribution

Fermi–Dirac statistics describes a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli ... more

dynamic viscosity of water (as a function of temperature temperature)

The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. For liquids, it corresponds to the ... more

Noise Power

Noise figure (NF) and noise factor (F) are measures of degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), caused by components in a ... more

Solar cell - current delivered by the illuminated diode

Operation of a solar cell can be understood from the equivalent circuit at right. Light, of sufficient energy (greater than the bandgap of the material), ... more

Atwood number

The Atwood number is a dimensionless number in fluid dynamics used in the study of hydrodynamic instabilities in density stratified flows. It is a ... more

Richardson's law

Thermionic emission is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier. This occurs because the thermal ... more

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