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Stroke Volume

In cardiovascular physiology, stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood pumped from one ventricle of the heart with each beat. SV is calculated using ... more

Preload (cardiac)

Preload is described as the stretching of a single cardiac myocyte immediately prior to contraction and is, therefore, related to the sarcomere length. ... more

Fractional shortening

Fractional shortening is the fraction of any diastolic dimension that is lost in systole. When referring to endocardial luminal distances, it is ... more

Cardiac Output

Cardiac output (Q or or CO ) is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a left or right ventricle in the time interval of one ... more

Pulse pressure

The up and down fluctuation of the arterial pressure results from the pulsatile nature of the cardiac output, i.e. the heartbeat. The pulse pressure is ... more

Photoelectric Effect - max kinetic energy of an ejected electron

The photoelectric effect is the observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them. Electrons emitted in this manner may be called ... more

Compression ratio

The compression ratio of an internal-combustion engine or external combustion engine is a value that represents the ratio of the volume of its combustion ... more

Newton's second law (variable-mass system)

Variable-mass systems, (like a rocket burning fuel and ejecting spent gases), are not closed and cannot be directly treated by making mass a function of ... more

Engine displacement

Engine displacement is the volume swept by all the pistons inside the cylinders of a reciprocating engine in a single movement from top dead centre (... more

Internal conversion coefficient

Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process where an excited nucleus interacts electromagnetically with an electron in one of the lower atomic ... more

Mean arterial pressure

The mean arterial pressure (MAP) is the average over a cardiac cycle and is determined from measurements of the systolic pressure ... more

Maximum thermal efficiency of a Diesel cycle

The Diesel cycle is a combustion process of a reciprocating internal combustion engine. In it, fuel is ignited by heat generated by compressing air in the ... more

Fick principle (calculation of cardiac output)

The essence of the Fick principle is that blood flow to an organ can be calculated using a marker substance if the following information is known:
... more

Rod and piston-to-stroke ratio

In a reciprocating piston engine, the connecting rod or conrod connects the piston to the crank or crankshaft. Together with the crank, they form a simple ... more

Creatinine Clearance

Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the state of the kidney and its role in renal physiology. Glomerular filtration rate (... more

Tractive Force - Steam locomotives

As used in mechanical engineering, the term tractive force can either refer to the total traction a vehicle exerts on a surface, or the amount of the total ... more

Estimated Blood Alcohol Concentration - EBAC

Blood alcohol content (BAC), also called blood alcohol concentration, blood ethanol concentration, or blood alcohol level is most ... more

Volume Fraction of the Fibers (Rule of mixtures)

In materials science, a general rule of mixtures is a weighted mean used to predict various properties of a composite material made up of continuous and ... more


The volume of the voids of a soil over the total volume of the sample defines the porosity of a soil. Used in geology, hydrogeology, soil science, and ... more

Volume thermal expansion coefficient

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature through heat transfer. For a solid, we can ignore ... more

Porosity (density related)

Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e., “empty”) spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the ... more

Atomic packing factor

In crystallography, atomic packing factor (APF), packing efficiency or packing fraction is the fraction of volume in a crystal ... more

Functional residual capacity

Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) is the volume of air present in the lungs, specifically the parenchyma tissues, at the end of ... more

Rule of Mixtures

In materials science, a general rule of mixtures is a weighted mean used to predict various properties of a composite material made up of continuous and ... more

Inverse Rule of Mixtures

In materials science, a general rule of mixtures is a weighted mean used to predict various properties of a composite material made up of continuous and ... more

Volume concentration

The volume concentration (also called volume fraction) is defined as the volume of one of the constituents divided by the volume of all constituents of the ... more

Vacuum Evacuation Time

The evacuation time for a vacuum pump can be calculated as shown

... more

Mass fraction (relation between mass and molar concentration)

In chemistry, the mass concentration is defined as the mass of a constituent divided by the volume of the mixture. The mass concentration of a component ... more

Specific airway resistance measured at FRC

In respiratory physiology, airway resistance is the resistance of the respiratory tract to airflow during inspiration and expiration . Specific airway ... more


The density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. For a pure substance the density has the same numerical value as its mass concentration. ... more

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