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First Townsend ionization coefficient

The Townsend discharge is a gas ionization process where free electrons, accelerated by a sufficiently strong electric field, give rise to electrical ... more

Electrostatic pressure

A conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of electrical current in one or more directions. On a conductor, a surface charge will ... more

Specific absorption rate - with Current density

Specific absorption rate (SAR) is a measure of the rate at which energy is absorbed by the human body when exposed to a radio ... more

Photometric ( luminous) exposure

In photography, exposure is the amount of light per unit area (the image plane illuminance times the exposure time) reaching a photographic film, as ... more

Richardson's law

Thermionic emission is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier. This occurs because the thermal ... more

Discharge Coefficient

In a nozzle or other constriction, the discharge coefficient (also known as coefficient of discharge) is the ratio of the actual discharge to the ... more

Drift velocity in a current-carrying metallic conductor

The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains due to an electric field. In general, an electron will 'rattle ... more

Radiation Pressure by Reflection (using particle model: photons)

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation pressure implies an interaction between ... more

Womersley Number

The Womersley number (α) is a dimensionless number in biofluid mechanics. It is a dimensionless expression of the pulsatile flow frequency in relation to ... more

Heat transfer coefficient of pipe wall (using inner/outer diameter)

Heat transfer describes the exchange of thermal energy, between physical systems depending on the temperature and pressure, by dissipating heat. The heat ... more

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