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Pulse tube cryocooler(or refrigerator) can be made without moving parts in the low temperature part of the device, making the cooler suitable for a wide ... more

The Doppler effect is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source. When the speeds of source ... more

Flux is two separate simple and ubiquitous concepts throughout physics and applied mathematics. Within a discipline, the term is generally used ... more

a) Calculate the gravitational potential energy stored in the pyramid, given its center of mass is at one-fourth its height.

b) Only a fraction of the workers lifted blocks; most were involved in support services such as building ramps, bringing food and water, and hauling blocks to the site. Calculate the efficiency of the workers who did the lifting, assuming there were 1000 of them and they consumed food energy at the rate of 300 Kcal/hour.

first we calculate the number of hours worked per year.

then we calculate the number of hours worked in the 20 years.

Then we calculate the energy consumed in 20 years knowing the energy consumed per hour and the total hours worked in 20 years.

The efficiency is the resulting potential energy divided by the consumed energy.

The compression ratio of an internal-combustion engine or external combustion engine is a value that represents the ratio of the volume of its combustion ... more

In optics, the f-number (sometimes called focal ratio, f-ratio, f-stop, or relative aperture) of an optical system is the ratio of the lens’s focal ... more

Pressure altitude within the atmosphere is the altitude in the International Standard Atmosphere with the same pressure as the part of the atmosphere in ... more

Pressure altitude within the atmosphere is the altitude in the International Standard Atmosphere with the same pressure as the part of the atmosphere in ... more

Diffusivity or diffusion coefficient is a proportionality constant between the molar flux due to molecular diffusion and the gradient in the concentration ... more

The Doppler effect is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source. When the speeds of source ... more

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The awe‐inspiring Great Pyramid of Cheops was built more than 4500 years ago. Its square base, originally 230 m on a side, covered 13.1 acres, and it was 146 m high (H), with a mass of about 7×10^9 kg. (The pyramid’s dimensions are slightly different today due to quarrying and some sagging). Historians estimate that 20,000 workers spent 20 years to construct it, working 12-hour days, 330 days per year.