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Speed of light in matter

The speed of light in vacuum is the speed at which all massless particles and changes of the associated fields (including electromagnetic radiation such as ... more

Complex amplitude of the primary wave

The Huygens–Fresnel principle is a method of analysis applied to problems of wave propagation both in the far-field limit and in near-field diffraction. ... more

Arbitrary Cherenkov emission angle

Cherenkov radiation, also known as Vavilov–Cherenkov radiation,[a] is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) ... more

Time of Flight

Time of flight (TOF) describes a variety of methods that measure the time that it takes for an object, particle or acoustic, ... more

Speed of sound in three-dimensional solids (shear waves)

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit of time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. Sound travels faster in liquids and ... more

Speed of sound in three-dimensional solids (pressure waves)

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit of time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. Sound travels faster in liquids and ... more

Frequency of a string under tension (nth harmonic)

A vibration in a string is a wave. Resonance causes a vibrating string to produce a sound with constant frequency, i.e. constant pitch. If the length or ... more

Reflection coefficient (wave normal incidence)

At the boundary between media of different acoustic impedances, some of the wave energy is reflected and some is transmitted. The greater the difference in ... more

Speed of Sound in Fluids (Newton-Laplace equation )

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit of time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium.
Sound travels faster in liquids ... more

Malus' law (polarized light)

A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that passes light of a specific polarization and blocks waves of other polarizations.
When a perfect ... more

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