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Gauge factor

Strain gauge is a device used to measure strain on an object. A strain is a normalized measure of deformation representing the displacement between ... more

Green strain

A strain is a normalized measure of deformation representing the displacement between particles in the body relative to a reference length.The concept of ... more

Euler-Almansi strain

Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.
Strain is a normalized ... more

Poisson's Ratio

Poisson’s ratio, named after Siméon Poisson, is the negative ratio of transverse to axial strain. When a material is compressed in one direction, it ... more

Curvature of a Bimetallic Beam

A bimetallic strip is used to convert a temperature change into mechanical displacement. The strip consists of two strips of different metals which expand ... more

Creep (deformation)

In materials science, creep (sometimes called cold flow) is the tendency of a solid material to move slowly or deform permanently under the influence of ... more

Hooke's law for continuous media

Hooke’s law states that the force needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance is proportional to that distance.The stresses and strains ... more

Allowable Strength Design Load combination (eq2)

In structural engineering, a structure is a body or combination of pieces of rigid bodies in space to form a fitness system for supporting loads. ... more

Griffith's criterion in Linear elastic fracture mechanics (stress intensity factor)

Fracture mechanics is the field of mechanics concerned with the study of the propagation of cracks in materials. It uses methods of analytical solid ... more

Elastic modulus

An elastic modulus, or modulus of elasticity, is the mathematical description of an object or substance’s tendency to be deformed elastically (i.e., ... more

In structural engineering, a structure is a body or combination of pieces of rigid bodies in space to form a fitness system for supporting loads. ... more

Allowable Strength Design Load combination (eq4)

In structural engineering, a structure is a body or combination of pieces of rigid bodies in space to form a fitness system for supporting loads. ... more

Strain energy release (Irwin's modification for plane strain)

A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two, or more, pieces under the action of stress.There are three ways of applying a force to ... more

Strain energy release (Irwin's modification for plane stress)

A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two, or more, pieces under the action of stress.There are three ways of applying a force to ... more

Stretch ratio

The stretch ratio or extension ratio is a measure of the extensional or normal strain of a differential line element, which can be defined at either the ... more

Young's Modulus

Young’s modulus, also known as the Tensile modulus or elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of an elastic isotropic material and is a ... more

Force exerted by stretched or contracted material

In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighbouring particles of a continuous material exert on each ... more

Gearing reduction ratio

Harmonic Drive is the brand name of strain wave gear trademarked by the Harmonic Drive company, and invented in 1957 by C.W. Musser.

It is very ... more

Shear Modulus

In materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain. ... more

Stress (mechanical)

Stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other. Any strain ... more

Shear rate at the inner wall of a Newtonian fluid (flowing within a pipe)

A Newtonian fluid is a fluid in which the viscous stresses arising from its flow, at every point, are proportional to the local strain rate — the rate of ... more

Shear modulus (related to Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio)

The shear modulus is one of several quantities for measuring the stiffness of materials and describes the material’s response to shear stress (like ... more

Hooke's Law (spring)

Hooke’s Law of elasticity is an approximation that states that the amount by which a material body is deformed (the strain) is linearly related to ... more

Modulus of resilience

Resilience is the ability of a material to absorb energy when it is deformed elastically, and release that energy upon unloading. Proof resilience is ... more

Linear mass density

Linear density is the measure of a quantity of any characteristic value per unit of length. Linear mass density (titer in textile engineering, the amount ... more

Worksheet 316

Calculate the change in length of the upper leg bone (the femur) when a 70.0 kg man supports 62.0 kg of his mass on it, assuming the bone to be equivalent to a uniform rod that is 45.0 cm long and 2.00 cm in radius.

Strategy

The force is equal to the weight supported:

Force (Newton's second law)

and the cross-sectional area of the upper leg bone(femur) is:

Disk area

To find the change in length we use the Young’s modulus formula. The Young’s modulus reference value for a bone under compression is known to be 9×109 N/m2. Now,all quantities except ΔL are known. Thus:

Young's Modulus

Discussion

This small change in length seems reasonable, consistent with our experience that bones are rigid. In fact, even the rather large forces encountered during strenuous physical activity do not compress or bend bones by large amounts. Although bone is rigid compared with fat or muscle, several of the substances listed in Table 5.3(see reference below) have larger values of Young’s modulus Y . In other words, they are more rigid.

Reference:
This worksheet is a modified version of Example 5.4 page 188 found in :
OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics

Griffith's criterion in Linear elastic fracture mechanics (critical stress intensity factor)

Fracture mechanics is the field of mechanics concerned with the study of the propagation of cracks in materials. It uses methods of analytical solid ... more

Herschel-Bulkley fluid (constitutive equation)

The Herschel–Bulkley fluid is a generalized model of a non-Newtonian fluid, in which the strain experienced by the fluid is related to the stress in a ... more

Rule of Mixtures

In materials science, a general rule of mixtures is a weighted mean used to predict various properties of a composite material made up of continuous and ... more

Inverse Rule of Mixtures

In materials science, a general rule of mixtures is a weighted mean used to predict various properties of a composite material made up of continuous and ... more

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