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Entropy of isothermal process in terms of pressure

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an ... more

Cross Section

The cross section is an effective area that quantifies the intrinsic likelihood of a scattering event when an incident beam strikes a target object, made ... more

Arrhenius number

In chemical kinetics, the pre-exponential factor or A factor is the pre-exponential constant in the Arrhenius equation. Here named as Arrhenius number.

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Tsiolkovsky rocket equation - acceleration based

The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, classical rocket equation, or ideal rocket equation is a mathematical equation that describes the motion of vehicles that ... more

Concentration of a substance (first order reaction)

The concentration of a substance at time “t”, of a first-order reaction, depends only on the initial concentration and the properties of the ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - Energetics of Auger transitions (more rigorous model)

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Doping (semiconductor)

In semiconductor production, doping intentionally introduces impurities into an extremely pure (also referred to as intrinsic) semiconductor for the ... more

Bending moments at any point along the span of a cantilevered beam with the free end supported on a roller

A cantilever is a beam anchored at only one end. The beam carries the load to the support where it is forced against by a moment and shear stress. A ... more

Diffusion coefficient (Mass diffusivity) for solids

Diffusivity or diffusion coefficient is a proportionality constant between the molar flux due to molecular diffusion and the gradient in the concentration ... more

Worksheet 302

In the wheelbarrow of the following figure the load has a perpendicular lever arm of 7.50 cm, while the hands have a perpendicular lever arm of 1.02 m.(a) What upward force must you exert to support the wheelbarrow and its load if their combined mass is 45.0 kg? (b) What force does the wheelbarrow exert on the ground?

(a) In the case of the wheelbarrow, the output force or load is between the pivot and the input force. The pivot is the wheel’s axle. Here, the output force is greater than the input force. Thus, a wheelbarrow enables you to lift much heavier loads than you could with your body alone. (b) In the case of the shovel, the input force is between the pivot and the load, but the input lever arm is shorter than the output lever arm. The pivot is at the handle held by the right hand. Here, the output force (supporting the shovel’s load) is less than the input force (from the hand nearest the load), because the input is exerted closer to the pivot than is the output.


Here, we use the concept of mechanical advantage.

Force (Newton's second law)
Mechanical Advantage - Law of Lever

An even longer handle would reduce the force needed to lift the load. The MA here is:


Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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