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Newton's Law of Cooling - Heat transfer version

Convection-cooling is sometimes called “Newton’s law of cooling” in cases where the heat transfer coefficient is independent or ... more

Einstein relation (Electrical mobility equation)

Electrical mobility is the ability of charged particles (such as electrons or protons) to move through a medium in response to an electric field that is ... more

Pressure dependence of the diffusion coefficient

Diffusivity or diffusion coefficient is a proportionality constant between the molar flux due to molecular diffusion and the gradient in the concentration ... more

Diffusion Coefficient - related to Fick's laws of diffusion

Diffusion is the net movement of a substance (e.g., an atom, ion or molecule) from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. This is ... more

Tunnel Ionization - DC

Tunnel ionization is a process in which electrons in an atom (or a molecule) pass through the potential barrier and escape from the atom (or molecule). In ... more

Solar cell - current delivered by the illuminated diode

Operation of a solar cell can be understood from the equivalent circuit at right. Light, of sufficient energy (greater than the bandgap of the material), ... more

Molar Refractivity - related to pressure

Molar refractivity, A, is a measure of the total polarizability of a mole of a substance and is dependent on the temperature, the index of refraction, and ... more

Probability that an electron hits an ion at ionization process

Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions. If an electron ... more

Townsend avalanche (Townsend discharge)

The Townsend discharge is a gas ionization process where free electrons, accelerated by a sufficiently strong electric field, give rise to electrical ... more

Radiant Exitance (real surface)

In radiometry, radiant exitance is the radiant flux emitted by a surface per unit area, and spectral exitance is the radiant exitance of a surface per unit ... more

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