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Gas-discharge tubes (electrical oscillation's frequency)

In cold cathode tubes, the electric discharge in gas has three regions, with distinct current-voltage characteristics: a)Townsend discharge, below the ... more

Temprature of a planet

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by ... more

First Townsend ionization coefficient

The Townsend discharge is a gas ionization process where free electrons, accelerated by a sufficiently strong electric field, give rise to electrical ... more

Gibbs free energy calculator

The Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “usefulness” or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic ... more

Energy Density of electric and magnetic fields

Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume or mass, though the latter is more accurately termed ... more

Elastic Potential Energy

According to Hooke’s Law, Elastic potential energy is stored in a simple harmonic oscillator at position x,for example, the energy saved in an object ... more

Shockley diode equation (small forward bias voltages)

In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal electronic component with asymmetric conductance; it has low (ideally zero) resistance to current in one ... more

Heat transfer coefficient

Heat flux or thermal flux is the rate of heat energy transfer through a given surface, per unit surface. The heat transfer coefficient or film coefficient, ... more

Power emitted by a planet

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by ... more

Ideal gas - isothermal process function of volume

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an ... more

Richardson's law

Thermionic emission is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier. This occurs because the thermal ... more

Time to reach specific temperature (related to Biot and Fourier numbers)

The Biot number (Bi) is a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer calculations. Gives a simple index of the ratio of the heat transfer resistances ... more

Vacuum tube - transconductance

In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or colloquially a tube (North America) or valve (British usage), is a device that controls electric ... more

Indicated airspeed (IAS) - compressible fluid

Indicated airspeed (IAS) is the airspeed read directly from the airspeed indicator (ASI) on an ... more

Electron's energy

n atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in ... more

1st Bohr's condition

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in ... more

Electron orbit radius

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in ... more

Probability that an electron hits an ion at ionization process

Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions. If an electron ... more

Electrokinesis

Electrohydrodynamics (EHD), also known as electro-fluid-dynamics (EFD) or electrokinetics, is the study ... more

Shockley diode equation (in real transistors)

In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal electronic component with asymmetric conductance; it has low (ideally zero) resistance to current in one ... more

Horizontal curve - Sight obstraction distance (S<L)

Horizontal curve – Sight Distance Properties (S<L)

Horizontal Curves are one of the two important transition elements in geometric ... more

Buoyancy mass (effective mass)

The effective mass of an object which is submerged and suspended via a cord, is the mass of a reference object on the a dry-land pan of the balance that ... more

Horizontal curve - Sight obstraction distance (S>L)

Horizontal Curves are one of the two important transition elements in geometric design for highways (along with Vertical Curves). A horizontal curve ... more

Mach Number (subsonic compressible flow)

In fluid mechanics, Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local ... more

Entropy of isothermal process in terms of pressure

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an ... more

Mach Number (subsonic, calculated from Pitot Tube Pressure)

In fluid mechanics, Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local ... more

Magnetic field created by a current ( magnetomotive force.F=N*I)

An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by electric current. The magnetic field disappears when the current is turned ... more

Perimeter of a Circle (by the radius)

A perimeter is a path that surrounds a two-dimensional shape.The perimeter of a circle or ellipse is called its circumference. A circle can be defined as ... more

Perimeter of a Circle (by the diameter)

A perimeter is a path that surrounds a two-dimensional shape.The perimeter of a circle or ellipse is called its circumference. A circle can be defined as ... more

Mach Number (supersonic, calculated from Pitot Tube Pressure)

In fluid mechanics, Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local ... more

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