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Total shareholder return

Total Shareholder Return (TSR) (or simply Total Return) is a measure of the performance of different companies’ stocks and shares ... more

Black-Scholes formula - value of a call option for a non-dividend-paying underlying stock

The Black–Scholes /ˌblæk ˈʃoʊlz/ or Black–Scholes–Merton model is a mathematical model of a financial market containing derivative investment instruments. ... more

Earnings per share (net income formula)

Earnings per share is the monetary value of earnings per each outstanding share of a company’s common stock. In business, net income – also ... more

Weighted average cost of capital

The weighted average cost of capital is the rate that a company is expected to pay on average to all its security holders to finance its assets. It is the ... more

Cost of equity

The cost of capital is a term used in the field of financial investment to refer to the cost of a company’s funds (both debt and equity). Equity is ... more

Earnings per share (basic formula)

Earnings per share is the monetary value of earnings per each outstanding share of a company’s common stock. When preferred shares are cumulative, ... more

Earnings per share (continuing operations formula)

Earnings per share is the monetary value of earnings per each outstanding share of a company’s common stock. Shares outstanding are all the shares of a ... more

Annualized volatility

In finance, volatility is a measure for variation of price of a financial instrument over time. return is a profit on an investment. It comprises any ... more

Dow Jones Industrial Average

The Dow Jones Industrial Average is a stock market index, and one of several indices created by Wall Street Journal editor and Dow Jones & Company ... more

Capital asset pricing model ( including size premium and specific risk)

In finance, the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is used to determine a theoretically appropriate required rate of return of an ... more

Tier 1 capital

Tier 1 capital is the core measure of a bank’s financial strength from a regulator’s point of view. It is composed of core capital, which ... more

Capital asset pricing model

In finance, the capital asset pricing model is used to determine a theoretically appropriate required rate of return of an asset, if that asset is to be ... more

Profit percentage

Profit percentage is the percentage of cost price that one gets as profit on top of cost price. Profit percentage is calculated with cost price taken as ... more

Dividend cover ratio

Dividend cover is the ratio of company’s earnings (net income) over the dividend paid to shareholders, calculated as earnings per share divided by ... more

Straight-line depreciation method

In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource. Anything tangible or intangible that is capable of being owned or controlled to produce value ... more

Declining Balance Method (depreciation rate)

n financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource. Anything tangible or intangible that is capable of being owned or controlled to produce value and ... more

Security market line (SML)

Security market line (SML) is the representation of the capital asset pricing model. It displays the expected rate of return of ... more

Dividend payout ratio

Dividend payout ratio is the fraction of net income a firm pays to its stockholders in dividends. The part of the earnings not paid to investors is left ... more

Benford's Law

Benford’s Law, also called the First-Digit Law, refers to the frequency distribution of digits in many (but not all) real-life sources of data. In ... more

Logarithmic rate of return

In finance, return is a profit on an investment. It comprises any change in value, and interest or dividends or other such cash flows which the investor ... more

Present value of a perpetuity (Present Value of Int Factor Annuity)

A perpetuity is payments of a set amount of money that occur on a routine basis and continues forever. Present value of a perpetuity is an infinite and ... more

Logarithmic compounded return ( force of interest)

In finance, return is a profit on an investment. It comprises any change in value, and interest or dividends or other such cash flows which the investor ... more

Days In Inventory

Days in inventory is an efficiency ratio that measures the average number of days the company holds its inventory before selling it. Cost of goods sold or ... more

Return over a single period

In finance, return is a profit on an investment. return is also used to refer to a profit on an investment, expressed as a proportion of the amount ... more

Worksheet 341

The awe‐inspiring Great Pyramid of Cheops was built more than 4500 years ago. Its square base, originally 230 m on a side, covered 13.1 acres, and it was 146 m high (H), with a mass of about 7×10^9 kg. (The pyramid’s dimensions are slightly different today due to quarrying and some sagging). Historians estimate that 20,000 workers spent 20 years to construct it, working 12-hour days, 330 days per year.

a) Calculate the gravitational potential energy stored in the pyramid, given its center of mass is at one-fourth its height.

Division
Potential energy

b) Only a fraction of the workers lifted blocks; most were involved in support services such as building ramps, bringing food and water, and hauling blocks to the site. Calculate the efficiency of the workers who did the lifting, assuming there were 1000 of them and they consumed food energy at the rate of 300 Kcal/hour.

first we calculate the number of hours worked per year.

Multiplication

then we calculate the number of hours worked in the 20 years.

Multiplication

Then we calculate the energy consumed in 20 years knowing the energy consumed per hour and the total hours worked in 20 years.

Multiplication
Multiplication

The efficiency is the resulting potential energy divided by the consumed energy.

Division
Relation between a rate of return and a return over a period of time ( reinvested)

In finance, return is a profit on an investment. It comprises any change in value, and interest or dividends or other such cash flows which the investor ... more

Annualisation of logarithmic retururn

In finance, return is a profit on an investment. It comprises any change in value, and interest or dividends or other such cash flows which the investor ... more

Envy ratio

Envy ratio in finance is the ratio of the price paid by investors to that paid by the management team for their respective shares of the equity. This ... more

Adjusted current yield

The current yield, interest yield, income yield, flat yield, market yield, mark to market yield or running yield is a financial term used in reference to ... more

Compound annual growth rate

Compound annual growth rate is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the ... more

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