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Lift-to-Drag Ratio - with wetted aspect ratio

In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio, is the amount of lift generated by a wing or vehicle, divided by the drag it creates by moving ... more

Zero-Lift Drag Coefficient

In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio, is the amount of lift generated by a wing or vehicle, divided by the drag it creates by moving ... more

Supersonic/Hypersonic Lift-to-Drag Ratio

In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio, is the amount of lift generated by a wing or vehicle, divided by the drag it creates by moving ... more

Wing loading - turning radius

In aerodynamics, wing loading is the total weight of an aircraft divided by the area of its wing. The stalling speed of an aircraft in straight, level ... more

Wind loading - takeoff speed

In aerodynamics, wing loading is the total weight of an aircraft divided by the area of its wing. The stalling speed of an aircraft in straight, level ... more

Lift coefficient (for an airfoil section)

The lift coefficient is a dimensionless coefficient that relates the lift generated by a lifting body to the density of the fluid around the body, its ... more

Thrust-to-Weight Ratio

Thrust-to-weight ratio is a dimensionless ratio of thrust to weight of a rocket, jet engine, propeller engine, or a vehicle propelled by such an engine ... more

Lift coefficient (at dynamic pressure)

The lift coefficient is a dimensionless coefficient that relates the lift generated by a lifting body to the associated reference area and the fluid ... more

Karman line (lift force)

Karman line, lies at an altitude of 100 kilometers (62 mi) above the Earth’s sea level, and commonly represents the boundary between the ... more

Thrust-to-Weight Ratio - Propeller-driven aircraft

Thrust-to-weight ratio is a dimensionless ratio of thrust to weight of a rocket, jet engine, propeller engine, or a vehicle propelled by such an engine ... more

Wing loading - upward acceleration

In aerodynamics, wing loading is the total weight of an aircraft divided by the area of its wing. The stalling speed of an aircraft in straight, level ... more

Glide Ratio

Gliding flight is heavier-than-air flight without the use of thrust; the term volplaning also refers to this mode of flight in animals. It is employed by ... more

Energy–Maneuverability Theory (aircraft performance)

Energy–maneuverability theory is a model of aircraft performance. It was developed by Col. John Boyd, and is useful in describing an aircraft’s ... more

Critical Buckling Stress of a Column with Buckling Coefficient

Column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above ... more

Working Load Limit

Safe Working Load (SWL) sometimes stated as the Normal Working Load (NWL) is the maximum safe force ... more

Drag coefficient

Drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) refers to forces acting ... more

Atomic packing factor

In crystallography, atomic packing factor (APF), packing efficiency or packing fraction is the fraction of volume in a crystal ... more

Block and tackle - efficiency approximation - with friction factor

A block and tackle is a system of two or more pulleys with a rope or cable threaded between them, usually used to lift or pull heavy loads.A more precise ... more

Drag force on a rigid cylinder when velocity is perpendicular to its axis(Slender-body theory)

n fluid dynamics and electrostatics, slender-body theory is a methodology that can be used to take advantage of the slenderness of a body to obtain an ... more

Drag force on a rigid cylinder when velocity is parallel to its axis(Slender-body theory)

In fluid dynamics and electrostatics, slender-body theory is a methodology that can be used to take advantage of the slenderness of a body to obtain an ... more

Sears–Haack body (Drag Coefficient related to the Volume)

The Sears–Haack body is the shape with the lowest theoretical wave drag in supersonic flow, for a given body length and given volume. The mathematical ... more

Sears–Haack body (Drag Coefficient related to the maximum Radius)

The Sears–Haack body is the shape with the lowest theoretical wave drag in supersonic flow, for a given body length and given volume. The mathematical ... more

Worksheet 341

The awe‐inspiring Great Pyramid of Cheops was built more than 4500 years ago. Its square base, originally 230 m on a side, covered 13.1 acres, and it was 146 m high (H), with a mass of about 7×10^9 kg. (The pyramid’s dimensions are slightly different today due to quarrying and some sagging). Historians estimate that 20,000 workers spent 20 years to construct it, working 12-hour days, 330 days per year.

a) Calculate the gravitational potential energy stored in the pyramid, given its center of mass is at one-fourth its height.

Division
Potential energy

b) Only a fraction of the workers lifted blocks; most were involved in support services such as building ramps, bringing food and water, and hauling blocks to the site. Calculate the efficiency of the workers who did the lifting, assuming there were 1000 of them and they consumed food energy at the rate of 300 Kcal/hour.

first we calculate the number of hours worked per year.

Multiplication

then we calculate the number of hours worked in the 20 years.

Multiplication

Then we calculate the energy consumed in 20 years knowing the energy consumed per hour and the total hours worked in 20 years.

Multiplication
Multiplication

The efficiency is the resulting potential energy divided by the consumed energy.

Division
Tractive Force - Steam locomotives

As used in mechanical engineering, the term tractive force can either refer to the total traction a vehicle exerts on a surface, or the amount of the total ... more

Drag equation ( for fluids)

Drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) refers to forces acting ... more

Ballistic Coefficient - using body length

In ballistics, the ballistic coefficient (BC) of a body is a measure of its ability to overcome air resistance in flight. It is inversely proportional to ... more

Ballistic Coefficient - using corss-sectional area

In ballistics, the ballistic coefficient (BC) of a body is a measure of its ability to overcome air resistance in flight. It is inversely proportional to ... more

Hot Air Balloon Lift

The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology. The first hot-air balloon flown in the United States was launched from the ... more

Drag coefficient for a spherical object in creeping flow

In fluid dynamics, the drag coefficient is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment, ... more

Velocity of a falling object

In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force ... more

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