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Flux (as a single scalar)

Flux is two separate simple and ubiquitous concepts throughout physics and applied mathematics. Within a discipline, the term is generally used ... more

Karman line (lift force)

Karman line, lies at an altitude of 100 kilometers (62 mi) above the Earth’s sea level, and commonly represents the boundary between the ... more

Moment of Inertia - I-Beam (Ideal cross section)

An I-beam, also known as H-beam, W-beam (for “wide flange”), Universal Beam (UB), Rolled Steel Joist (RSJ), or ... more

Archimedes number

In viscous fluid dynamics, the Archimedes number (Ar) (not to be confused with Archimedes’ constant, π), named after the ancient Greek scientist ... more

Beale number

In mechanical engineering, the Beale number is a parameter that characterizes the performance of Stirling engines. It is often used to estimate the power ... more

Αxial stiffness for an element in tension

The stiffness of a body is a measure of the resistance offered by an elastic body to deformation.
Tension describes the pulling force exerted by each ... more

Density ( temperature dependence)

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The density of a material varies with temperature ... more

Bernoulli’s Equation (conservation of energy)

Bernoulli’s equation states that for an incompressible, frictionless fluid, the above mentioned sum is constant. If we follow a small volume of fluid along ... more

Shields Parameter

The Shields parameter, also called the Shields criterion or Shields number, is a nondimensional number used to calculate the initiation of motion of ... more

Worksheet 316

Calculate the change in length of the upper leg bone (the femur) when a 70.0 kg man supports 62.0 kg of his mass on it, assuming the bone to be equivalent to a uniform rod that is 45.0 cm long and 2.00 cm in radius.


The force is equal to the weight supported:

Force (Newton's second law)

and the cross-sectional area of the upper leg bone(femur) is:

Disk area

To find the change in length we use the Young’s modulus formula. The Young’s modulus reference value for a bone under compression is known to be 9×109 N/m2. Now,all quantities except ΔL are known. Thus:

Young's Modulus


This small change in length seems reasonable, consistent with our experience that bones are rigid. In fact, even the rather large forces encountered during strenuous physical activity do not compress or bend bones by large amounts. Although bone is rigid compared with fat or muscle, several of the substances listed in Table 5.3(see reference below) have larger values of Young’s modulus Y . In other words, they are more rigid.

This worksheet is a modified version of Example 5.4 page 188 found in :
OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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