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Relation between Polarization density and Electric field in various materials

In classical electromagnetism, polarization density is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a ... more

Electric charge density displacement

Piezoelectricity is the combined effect of the electrical behavior of the material Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain ... more

Intensity of unpolarized light (Malus' law)

Light as one type of electromagnetic (EM) wave, is a transverse wave, consisting of varying electric and magnetic fields that oscillate perpendicular to ... more

Reflectance for unpolarised incident light

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Electrical conductivity (general definition)

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how ... more

Electrical resistivity (general definition)

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how ... more

Fresnel reflection (Reflectivity Rs)

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Fresnel reflection (Reflectivity Rp)

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Hall coefficient

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the ... more

Energy Density of electric and magnetic fields

Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume or mass, though the latter is more accurately termed ... more

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