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Damping ratio ( related to damping coefficients)

Linear damping occurs when a potentially oscillatory variable is damped by an influence that opposes changes in it, in direct proportion to the ... more

Degree of dissociation of a weak electrolyte

The degree of dissociation of a weak electrolyte is proportional to the inverse square root of the concentration, or the square root of the dilution

... more

Darcy friction factor - Free surface flow

In fluid dynamics, the Darcy friction factor formulae are equations that allow the calculation of the Darcy friction factor, a dimensionless quantity used ... more

Radial Kepler equation

In orbital mechanics, Kepler’s equation relates various geometric properties of the orbit of a body subject to a central force.

It was first ... more

Worksheet 334

In a video game design, a map shows the location of other characters relative to the player, who is situated at the origin, and the direction they are facing. A character currently shows on the map at coordinates (-3, 5). If the player rotates counterclockwise by 20 degrees, then the objects in the map will correspondingly rotate 20 degrees clockwise. Find the new coordinates of the character.

To rotate the position of the character, we can imagine it as a point on a circle, and we will change the angle of the point by 20 degrees. To do so, we first need to find the radius of this circle and the original angle.

Drawing a right triangle inside the circle, we can find the radius using the Pythagorean Theorem:

Pythagorean theorem (right triangle)

To find the angle, we need to decide first if we are going to find the acute angle of the triangle, the reference angle, or if we are going to find the angle measured in standard position. While either approach will work, in this case we will do the latter. By applying the cosine function and using our given information we get

Cosine function

While there are two angles that have this cosine value, the angle of 120.964 degrees is in the second quadrant as desired, so it is the angle we were looking for.

Rotating the point clockwise by 20 degrees, the angle of the point will decrease to 100.964 degrees. We can then evaluate the coordinates of the rotated point

For x axis:

Cosine function

For y axis:

Sine function

The coordinates of the character on the rotated map will be (-1.109, 5.725)

Reference : PreCalculus: An Investigation of Functions,Edition 1.4 © 2014 David Lippman and Melonie Rasmussen
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/us/

Ripple factor (choke)

For the root mean square value of the ripple voltage, the calculation is more involved as the shape of the ripple waveform has a bearing on the result. ... more

Petroff's Law - Bearing coefficient of friction

In the design of fluid bearings, the Sommerfeld number (S), or bearing characteristic number, is a dimensionless quantity used extensively in hydrodynamic ... more

Stokes's Law of Sound Attenuation

Stokes’s law of sound attenuation is a formula for the attenuation of sound in a Newtonian fluid, such as water or air, due to the fluid’s ... more

Shannon–Hartley theorem

In information theory, the Shannon–Hartley theorem tells the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted over a communications channel of a ... more

Speed of Sound (air, ideal gases) - relative to the mass of a single molecule

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. The SI unit of the speed of sound is the ... more

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