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Stress (mechanical)

Stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other. Any strain ... more

Karman vortex street formula

In fluid dynamics, a Kármán vortex street is a repeating pattern of swirling vortices caused by the unsteady separation of flow of a fluid around blunt ... more

Force exerted by stretched or contracted material

In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighbouring particles of a continuous material exert on each ... more

Beam shear

Shear stress,is defined as the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section. The average shear stress is force per unit area. Beam shear is ... more

Young's Modulus

Young’s modulus, also known as the Tensile modulus or elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of an elastic isotropic material and is a ... more

Critical Buckling Stress of a Column with Buckling Coefficient

Column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above ... more

Turnbuckle (The direct shear stress induced in screw thread)

A mechanical joint is a part of a machine which is used to connect another mechanical part or mechanism. Mechanical joints may be temporary or permanent. ... more

Worksheet 316

Calculate the change in length of the upper leg bone (the femur) when a 70.0 kg man supports 62.0 kg of his mass on it, assuming the bone to be equivalent to a uniform rod that is 45.0 cm long and 2.00 cm in radius.

Strategy

The force is equal to the weight supported:

Force (Newton's second law)

and the cross-sectional area of the upper leg bone(femur) is:

Disk area

To find the change in length we use the Young’s modulus formula. The Young’s modulus reference value for a bone under compression is known to be 9×109 N/m2. Now,all quantities except ΔL are known. Thus:

Young's Modulus

Discussion

This small change in length seems reasonable, consistent with our experience that bones are rigid. In fact, even the rather large forces encountered during strenuous physical activity do not compress or bend bones by large amounts. Although bone is rigid compared with fat or muscle, several of the substances listed in Table 5.3(see reference below) have larger values of Young’s modulus Y . In other words, they are more rigid.

Reference:
This worksheet is a modified version of Example 5.4 page 188 found in :
OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics

Area of a Disc (integral)

Calculates the area of a disc of radius r or the area enclosed in a circle of radius r. Partitioning the disk into thin concentric rings, like the layers ... more

Maximum axial load that a long, slender, ideal column can carry without buckling

Column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above ... more

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