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Vis-Viva Equation

In astrodynamics, the vis viva equation, also referred to as orbital energy conservation equation, is one of the fundamental equations that govern the ... more

Photoacoustic Doppler effect

The photoacoustic Doppler effect is one specific kind of Doppler effect, which occurs when an intensity modulated light wave induces a photoacoustic wave ... more

Thin lens formula

A lens is a transmissive optical device which affects the focusing of a light beam through refraction. A simple lens consists of a single piece of ... more

Horizontal curve - Sight obstraction distance (S<L)

Horizontal curve – Sight Distance Properties (S<L)

Horizontal Curves are one of the two important transition elements in geometric ... more

Cutoff Frequency in Electronic Low-Pass Filters

A low-pass filter is a filter that passes signals with a frequency lower than a certain cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with frequencies higher ... more

Radius of Inertial circle ( by Coriolis effect)

In physics, the Coriolis effect is a deflection of moving objects when they are viewed in a rotating reference frame.
An air or water mass moving with ... more

Refarctive index (absence of attenuation in vacuum)

When an electromagnetic wave travels through a medium in which it gets attenuated (this is called an “opaque” or “attenuating” ... more

Antenna Gain - Relative to a Dipole

In electromagnetics, an antenna’s power gain or simply gain is a key performance figure which combines the antenna’s directivity and electrical ... more

Speed of light in matter

The speed of light in vacuum is the speed at which all massless particles and changes of the associated fields (including electromagnetic radiation such as ... more

Snell's law (velocities)

Snell’s law (also known as the Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of ... more

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