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Photometric ( luminous) exposure

In photography, exposure is the amount of light per unit area (the image plane illuminance times the exposure time) reaching a photographic film, as ... more

Solar Cell - Fill Factor

Solar cell efficiency is the ratio of the electrical output of a solar cell to the incident energy in the form of sunlight. The energy conversion ... more

Solar luminosity

is a unit of radiant flux (power emitted in the form of photons) conventionally used by astronomers to measure the luminosity of stars. It is defined in ... more

Fatigue (Miner’s Rule)

In materials science fatigue occurs when a material is subjected to repeated loading and unloading. The failure of the material occurs when there are k ... more

Solar Cell Efficiency

Solar cell efficiency is the ratio of the electrical output of a solar cell to the incident energy in the form of sunlight. The energy conversion ... more

Working f-Number

In optics, the f-number (sometimes called focal ratio, f-ratio, f-stop, or relative aperture) of an optical system is the ratio of the lens’s focal ... more

Hemispherical Reflectance

Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy. It is the fraction of incident electromagnetic power that is ... more

Specific absorption rate - with Electric intensity

Specific absorption rate (SAR) is a measure of the rate at which energy is absorbed by the human body when exposed to a radio ... more

Working f-Number (related to uncorrected f-Number)

In optics, the f-number (sometimes called focal ratio, f-ratio, f-stop, or relative aperture) of an optical system is the ratio of the lens’s focal ... more

Creep (deformation)

In materials science, creep (sometimes called cold flow) is the tendency of a solid material to move slowly or deform permanently under the influence of ... more

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