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Radiant Exitance (real surface)

In radiometry, radiant exitance is the radiant flux emitted by a surface per unit area, and spectral exitance is the radiant exitance of a surface per unit ... more

Reflectance for unpolarised incident light

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Fresnel reflection (Reflectivity Rs)

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Fresnel reflection (Reflectivity Rp)

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Volumetric flow rate

The volumetric flow rate is the volume of fluid which passes through a given surface per unit time. Fow velocity in fluid dynamics or drift velocity in ... more

Solar Cell Efficiency

Solar cell efficiency is the ratio of the electrical output of a solar cell to the incident energy in the form of sunlight. The energy conversion ... more

Magnification of the telescope

Optical magnification is the ratio between the apparent size of an object (or its size in an image) and its true size, and thus it is a dimensionless ... more

Snell's law of refraction ( wavelengths)

When a ray of light hits the boundary between two transparent materials, it is divided into a reflected and a refracted ray.The law of refraction states ... more

Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model of elastic contact between two spheres ( contact radius)

Contact mechanics is the study of the deformation of solids that touch each other at one or more points.When two solid surfaces are brought into close ... more

Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model of elastic contact between two spheres ( pull-off force)

Contact mechanics is the study of the deformation of solids that touch each other at one or more points.When two solid surfaces are brought into close ... more

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