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Radius of gyration

Gyration is a rotation in a discrete subgroup of symmetries of the Euclidean plane such that the subgroup does not also contain a reflection symmetry whose ... more

Vertical Curve - Offset

Offsets are vertical distances from the initial tangent to the curve, play a significant role in vertical curve design.

Vertical Curves are the ... more

Isentropic Relations for an Ideal Gas - Pressure and volume

In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is adiabatic and in which the work transfers of the system are ... more

Internal energy isobaric process

An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant: ΔP = 0. The heat transferred to the system does work, but also changes ... more

Thom correlation

There exist simple fluid-specific correlations for heat transfer coefficient in boiling. The Thom correlation is for the flow of boiling water (subcooled ... more


The Cauchy strain or engineering strain is expressed as the ratio of total deformation to the initial dimension of the material body in which the forces ... more

Solar Cell Efficiency

Solar cell efficiency is the ratio of the electrical output of a solar cell to the incident energy in the form of sunlight. The energy conversion ... more

Impact shear

Shear stress, is defined as the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section. Shear stress arises from the force vector component parallel to ... more

Ideal rocket equation (Tsiolkovsky rocket equation)

The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, or ideal rocket equation describes the motion of vehicles that follow the basic principle of a rocket: a ... more

Pumping power

The power imparted into a fluid increases the energy of the fluid per unit volume. Thus the power relationship is between the conversion of the mechanical ... more

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