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Volume thermal expansion coefficient

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature through heat transfer. For a solid, we can ignore ... more

Thermal Expansion - Linear

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature through heat transfer. When a substance is heated, ... more

Density ( temperature dependence)

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The density of a material varies with temperature ... more

Worksheet 324

The main span of San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge is 1275 m long at its coldest. The bridge is exposed to temperatures ranging from –15ºC to 40ºC . (a) What is its change in length between these temperatures? Assume that the bridge is made entirely of steel.

Strategy

Use the equation for linear thermal expansion to calculate the change in length , ΔL . Use the coefficient of linear expansion, α ,for steel from Table 13.2, and note that the change in temperature, ΔT , is 55ºC

Thermal Expansion - Linear

(b) convert the change in temperature if Kelvin and Fahrenheit degrees. **
**this section is not included in the Reference material

Celsius <-> Kelvin
Celsius <-> Fahrenheit

Discussion

Although not large compared with the length of the bridge, this change in length is observable. It is generally spread over many expansion joints so that the expansion at each joint is small.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Rayleigh Number

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy driven flow (also known as free convection or ... more

Richardson Number - thermal convection

The Richardson number (Ri) is named after Lewis Fry Richardson (1881 – 1953). It is the dimensionless number that expresses the ratio of potential to ... more

Rayleigh number (for a uniform wall heating flux)

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

Rayleigh number (for geophysical applications - related to bottom heating of the mantle from the core)

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

Rayleigh number (for geophysical applications)

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

Exchanged Heat in a Heat Exchanger

The logarithmic mean temperature difference (also known as log mean temperature difference or simply by its initialism LMTD) is ... more

Maximum thermal efficiency of an Otto cycle

The constant volume adiabatic flame temperature is the temperature that results from a complete combustion process that occurs without any work, heat ... more

Entropy of isothermal process in terms of volume

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an ... more

Entropy of isothermal process in terms of pressure

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an ... more

Heat capacity ratio

Heat capacity, or thermal capacity, is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or subtracted from) an object to the ... more

Curvature of a Bimetallic Beam

A bimetallic strip is used to convert a temperature change into mechanical displacement. The strip consists of two strips of different metals which expand ... more

Newton's Law of Cooling - Heat transfer version

Convection-cooling is sometimes called “Newton’s law of cooling” in cases where the heat transfer coefficient is independent or ... more

Heat transfer rate for a pipe with a fluid flowing inside.

The rate of heat transfer between the bulk of the fluid inside the pipe and the pipe external surface is related to the pipe surface area, the wall ... more

Time to reach specific temperature (related to Biot and Fourier numbers)

The Biot number (Bi) is a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer calculations. Gives a simple index of the ratio of the heat transfer resistances ... more

Temperature difference - I-nodes model of an Earth spacecraft

Temperature difference – I-nodes model of an Earth spacecraft

... more

Parallel Thermal Resistance in composite walls (conduction)

Thermal resistance is a heat property and a measurement of a temperature difference by which an object or material resists a heat flow. Thermal resistance ... more

Heat flow in electronics - maximum power dissipate

The heat flow can be modelled by analogy to an electrical circuit where heat flow is represented by current, temperatures are represented by voltages, heat ... more

Radial Thermal Resistance in composite walls (conduction)

Thermal resistance is a heat property and a measurement of a temperature difference by which an object or material resists a heat flow. Thermal resistance ... more

Heat transfer coefficient

Heat flux or thermal flux is the rate of heat energy transfer through a given surface, per unit surface. The heat transfer coefficient or film coefficient, ... more

Heat flux (Advection)

Heat transfer describes the exchange of thermal energy, between physical systems depending on the temperature and pressure, by dissipating heat. The ... more

Overall heat transfer coefficient

Heat transfer describes the exchange of thermal energy, between physical systems depending on the temperature and pressure, by dissipating heat. The heat ... more

Biot number

The Biot number (Bi) is a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer calculations. Gives a simple index of the ratio of the heat transfer resistances ... more

Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan - final flow tempreture

A supersonic expansion fan, technically known as Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan, is a centred expansion process that occurs when a supersonic flow turns ... more

Ideal gas - isothermal process function of volume

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an ... more

Heat Conduction - Energy

Heat conduction (or thermal conduction) is the transfer of internal energy by microscopic diffusion and collisions of particles or quasi-particles within a ... more

Sudden expansion of a pipe (total head loss)

n fluid dynamics the Borda–Carnot equation is an empirical description of the mechanical energy losses of the fluid due to a (sudden) flow expansion. The ... more

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