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Vacuum wavelength

When an electromagnetic wave travels through a medium in which it gets attenuated (this is called an “opaque” or “attenuating” ... more

Wavenumber

In the physical sciences, the wavenumber (also wave number) is the spatial frequency of a wave, either in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit ... more

Relation between Polarization density and Electric field in various materials

In classical electromagnetism, polarization density is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a ... more

Geocentric radius of the Earth

Geodetic latitude is the angle between the normal and the equatorial plane. The distance from the Earth’s center to a point on the spheroid surface ... more

Refarctive index (absence of attenuation in vacuum)

When an electromagnetic wave travels through a medium in which it gets attenuated (this is called an “opaque” or “attenuating” ... more

Fraunhofer diffraction (Diffraction by a double slit)

In optics, the Fraunhofer diffraction equation is used to model the diffraction of waves when the diffraction pattern is viewed at a long distance from the ... more

Polar Moment of Area - Annulus Cross Section

The second moment of area, also known as moment of inertia of plane area, area moment of inertia, polar moment of area or second area moment, is a ... more

Relations between polarization density and electric displacement field

In classical electromagnetism, polarization density (or electric polarization, or simply polarization) is the vector field that expresses the density of ... more

Refractive Index ( absolute index of refraction )

The refractive index or index of refraction of a substance is a dimensionless number that describes how light, or any other radiation, propagates through ... more

Area Moment of Inertia - Square Cross-Section with centroid at the origin

The second moment of area, also known as moment of inertia of plane area, area moment of inertia, polar moment of area or second area moment, is a ... more

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