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Malus' law (polarized light)

A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that passes light of a specific polarization and blocks waves of other polarizations.
When a perfect ... more

Intensity of unpolarized light (Malus' law)

Light as one type of electromagnetic (EM) wave, is a transverse wave, consisting of varying electric and magnetic fields that oscillate perpendicular to ... more

Fresnel reflection (Reflectivity Rp)

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Fresnel reflection (Reflectivity Rs)

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Polarization angle (Brewster's angle)

The angle of incidence at which light with a particular polarization is perfectly transmitted through a transparent dielectric surface, with no reflection. ... more

Reflectance for unpolarised incident light

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Rayleigh Scattering - Intensity of Light from molecules

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Rayleigh Scattering - Intensity of Light

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Radiation Pressure by Absorption (using classical electromagnetism: waves)

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation pressure implies an interaction between ... more

Frequency (Doppler effect for a moving black body)

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by ... more

Compton scattering

Compton scattering is an inelastic scattering of a photon by a free charged particle, usually an electron. It results in a decrease in energy (increase in ... more

Photoacoustic Doppler effect

The photoacoustic Doppler effect is one specific kind of Doppler effect, which occurs when an intensity modulated light wave induces a photoacoustic wave ... more

Rayleigh Scattering Cross-Section

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Absorbance

Absorbance is a quantitative measure expressed as a logarithmic ratio between the radiation falling upon a material and the radiation transmitted through a ... more

Temprature of a black body

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by ... more

Intensity - Mathematical description

In physics, intensity is the power transferred per unit area, where the area is measured on the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the ... more

Redshift: 1+z (based on frequency)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

Redshift (based on frequency)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

Redshift (based on wavelength)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

Redshift: 1+z (based on wavelength)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

Loss due to Antenna Misalignment

Antenna measurement techniques refers to the testing of antennas to ensure that the antenna meets specifications or simply to characterize it. Typical ... more

Planck's law ( by wavelength)

Planck’s law describes the electromagnetic radiation emitted from a black body at a certain temperature. Radiance and spectral radiance are measures ... more

Planck's law ( by the Frequency)

Planck’s law describes the electromagnetic radiation emitted from a black body at a certain temperature. Radiance and spectral radiance are measures ... more

Near branch of a hyperbola in polar coordinates with respect to a focal point

In mathematics, a hyperbola is a type of smooth curve, lying in a plane, defined by its geometric properties or by equations for which it is the solution ... more

Compton wavelength

The Compton wavelength is a quantum mechanical property of a particle. The Compton wavelength of a particle is equivalent to the wavelength of a photon ... more

Angular resolution

Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, ... more

Circle equation in polar system

The general equation for a circle with a center not necessary at the pole, gives the length of the radius of the circle.
The polar coordinate system ... more

Wavelength - Sinusoidal Wave

In physics, the wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave’s shape repeats, and the inverse ... more

Gain of pyramidal horn antenna

A horn antenna or microwave horn is an antenna that consists of a flaring metal waveguide shaped like a horn to direct radio waves in a beam. Horns are ... more

Optimum pyramidal horn antenna - H-field

A horn antenna or microwave horn is an antenna that consists of a flaring metal waveguide shaped like a horn to direct radio waves in a beam. Horns are ... more

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