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Rotational stiffness ( depended on rigidity modulus of the material)

Stiffness is the rigidity of an object — the extent to which it resists deformation in response to an applied force. In general, stiffness is not the same ... more

Young's Modulus

Young’s modulus, also known as the Tensile modulus or elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of an elastic isotropic material and is a ... more

Worksheet 316

Calculate the change in length of the upper leg bone (the femur) when a 70.0 kg man supports 62.0 kg of his mass on it, assuming the bone to be equivalent to a uniform rod that is 45.0 cm long and 2.00 cm in radius.

Strategy

The force is equal to the weight supported:

Force (Newton's second law)

and the cross-sectional area of the upper leg bone(femur) is:

Disk area

To find the change in length we use the Young’s modulus formula. The Young’s modulus reference value for a bone under compression is known to be 9×109 N/m2. Now,all quantities except ΔL are known. Thus:

Young's Modulus

Discussion

This small change in length seems reasonable, consistent with our experience that bones are rigid. In fact, even the rather large forces encountered during strenuous physical activity do not compress or bend bones by large amounts. Although bone is rigid compared with fat or muscle, several of the substances listed in Table 5.3(see reference below) have larger values of Young’s modulus Y . In other words, they are more rigid.

Reference:
This worksheet is a modified version of Example 5.4 page 188 found in :
OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Critical buckling stress of a column

Column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above ... more

Self-buckling critical height ( for a free-standing, vertical column)

Column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above ... more

Semi-Elliptic Laminated Leaf Spring (Stiffness)

Leaf spring, commonly used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles. The term is also used to refer to a bundled set of leaf springs. As the spring flexes, ... more

Elastic potential energy( with respect to Length)

Elastic energy is the potential mechanical energy stored in the configuration of a material or physical system as work is performed to distort its volume ... more

Force exerted by stretched or contracted material

In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighbouring particles of a continuous material exert on each ... more

Tuning fork

A tuning fork is an acoustic resonator in the form of a two-pronged fork with the prongs (tines) formed from a U-shaped bar of elastic metal (usually ... more

Cantilever Euler Beam - Displacement

Euler–Bernoulli beam theory (also known as engineer’s beam theory or classical beam theory) is a simplification of the linear theory of elasticity ... more

Cantilever Euler Beam - Maximum Displacement

Euler–Bernoulli beam theory (also known as engineer’s beam theory or classical beam theory) is a simplification of the linear theory of elasticity ... more

Shear modulus (related to Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio)

The shear modulus is one of several quantities for measuring the stiffness of materials and describes the material’s response to shear stress (like ... more

Angle of deflection of an end loaded cantilever beam

In engineering, deflection is the degree to which a structural element is displaced under a load. It may refer to an angle or a distance.
The angle of ... more

Angle of deflection of a uniformly loaded cantilever beam

In engineering, deflection is the degree to which a structural element is displaced under a load. It may refer to an angle or a distance.
The angle of ... more

Maximum axial load that a long, slender, ideal column can carry without buckling

Column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above ... more

Speed of Sound in Solids - long rods

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit of time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium.
The speed of sound for ... more

Critical Buckling Stress of a Column with Buckling Coefficient

Column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above ... more

Reluctance

Magnetic reluctance, or magnetic resistance, is analogous to resistance in an electrical circuit (although it does not dissipate magnetic energy). In ... more

Shear Modulus

In materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain. ... more

Tuning fork (cylindrical prongs)

A tuning fork is an acoustic resonator in the form of a two-pronged fork with the prongs (tines) formed from a U-shaped bar of elastic metal (usually ... more

Maximum Pressure on a Contact Area between two cylinders with parallel axes

Contact mechanics is the study of the deformation of solids that touch each other at one or more points. Hertzian contact stress refers to the localized ... more

Torsion constant (Circle -cross-sectional shape)

In solid mechanics, torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque. The torsion constant is a geometrical property of a bar’s ... more

Force on a Contact Area between two cylinders with parallel axes

Contact mechanics is the study of the deformation of solids that touch each other at one or more points. Hertzian contact stress refers to the localized ... more

Critical Speed of a Rotating Shaft - Dunkerley's method

In solid mechanics, in the field of rotordynamics, the critical speed is the theoretical angular velocity that excites the natural frequency of a rotating ... more

Torsion constant (Square-cross-sectional shape)

In solid mechanics, torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque. The torsion constant is a geometrical property of a bar’s cross-section ... more

Volumetric flow rate (parallel to the unit normal)

volumetric flow rate, (also known as volume flow rate, rate of fluid flow or volume velocity) is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time. The only ... more

Torsion constant (Rectangle)

In solid mechanics, torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque. The torsion constant is a geometrical property of a bar’s cross-section ... more

Elastic modulus of a contact area between a sphere and an elastic half-space

Contact mechanics is the study of the deformation of solids that touch each other at one or more points. Hertzian contact stress refers to the localized ... more

Speed of Sound in Fluids (Newton-Laplace equation )

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit of time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium.
Sound travels faster in liquids ... more

Torsion constant (Ellipse -cross-sectional shape)

In solid mechanics, torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque. The torsion constant is a geometrical property of a bar’s cross-section ... more

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