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Sag curve length when S>L (Vertical curves for highway design)

When a driver is driving on a sag curve at night, the sight distance is limited by the higher grade in front of the vehicle. This distance must be long ... more

Second moment of area - I-Beam (W-section)

An I-beam, also known as H-beam, W-beam (for “wide flange”), Universal Beam (UB), Rolled Steel Joist (RSJ), or ... more

Tangent Length (Horizontal curves for highway design)

Horizontal alignment in road design consists of straight sections of road, known as tangents, connected by circular horizontal curves. Circular curves are ... more

Terrestrial Time

Terrestrial Time (TT) is a modern astronomical time standard defined by the International Astronomical Union, primarily for time-measurements of ... more

Triangulation (surveying)

In surveying, triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by measuring only angles to it from known points at either end of a fixed ... more

Vertical Curve - Offset

Offsets are vertical distances from the initial tangent to the curve, play a significant role in vertical curve design.

Vertical Curves are the ... more

Vertical Curve - Parabolic formula

Vertical Curves are the second of the two important transition elements in geometric design for highways, the first being Horizontal Curves. A vertical ... more

Vertical Curve - Stopping Sight Distance

Sight distance is dependent on the type of curve used and the design speed. For crest curves, sight distance is limited by the curve itself, as the curve ... more

Wetted perimeter

The wetted perimeter is the perimeter of the cross sectional area that is “wet”. The term wetted perimeter is common in civil engineering, ... more

Working Load Limit

Safe Working Load (SWL) sometimes stated as the Normal Working Load (NWL) is the maximum safe force ... more

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